In recent years, biogas has gained space and relevance in the energy scenario. Understand a little more about this renewable energy.
Global warming is a current problem and combating climate change is a challenge for everyone. In this scenario, the adoption of renewable energies, such as biogas, is becoming increasingly necessary to reduce the use of fossil fuels and, consequently, reduce the negative impacts generated by this use.
In this context, biogas arises, which is a sustainable alternative and which has advanced in the technological question for industrial use. This type of energy has recently entered its maturity phase. Although their numbers are still small, the installed capacity in the country has grown a lot recently. To better understand this energy source, read the content to the end.
What is biogas?
The main applications of biogas are the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the manufacture of biomethane and the use of waste as fertilizers. It is a gas produced from the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria.
In this cycle, chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy with the help of a combustion process. In this way, mechanical energy activates generators and creates electrical energy, for example. Biogas can also be used in boilers for direct burning, contributing to energy cogeneration.
The main way of producing this material is through the biological breakdown of organic material in the absence of oxygen. For industrial use, the system is simulated in controlled reactors in which microorganisms digest the raw material and produce biogas with up to 70% methane. After that, with absorption, filtration or separation methods, this gas can be improved, increasing its percentage of methane and approaching a fossil natural gas.
What are the benefits of this matrix?
Unlike wind and solar energy, biogas can be produced continuously and can be stored as raw material. Another positive point is that it can act as an intermittent regulatory mechanism, keeping supply and prices stable.
Biogas is also beneficial to the environment, as it has a negative carbon footprint. In other words, it has a low carbon emission and also gives new use to methane that could pollute soil and the atmosphere. The final disposal of solid waste is a major environmental problem in large urban centers and the decomposition of waste leads to the production of biogas. Thus, when using these sites as a source of biogas generation, there is an improvement for the environment and a new use of gas in a sustainable manner and bringing economic benefits.
How is the biogas market in Brazil?
The main sources of biogas production in Brazil are landfills, the food and beverage industry, pig farming and sewage sludge, according to research conducted by the Energy Research Company (EPE).
The energy produced from biogas has been developing. This year, the first biogas plant was installed in Espírito Santo. With the capacity to supply up to 50 thousand inhabitants, generating up to 5 MW, the generation of energy comes from biogas from the landfill of Marca Ambiental in Cariacica.
For 2020, expectations are for 10% growth, highlighting the southern region of the country, which has a high potential – of about 3 billion Nm3 / year – for this type of production from pig, cattle and poultry waste. The number of biogas generating units cataloged by ANEEL reached 190 in March 2020, corresponding to the generation of 27 GWh / month.
Therefore, even with recent advances in this area, it is clear that there is a notable potential for biogas exploration in the country. For this product to become a viable matrix, it is important to overcome challenges, such as reducing the bureaucracy of the current models made available by ANEEL, in order to attract new investments to the sector, enabling new projects in several regions of Brazil. What do you think about this energy source? Leave a comment in the post!